The wood transportation requires special care, due to the size and weight of the loads and some specificities and legal requirements that must be observed.
Proper wood storage in vehicles favors the load conservation and contributes to prevent accidents on the roads. To carry out these tasks it is necessary to have highly trained professionals who know the techniques involved and work in accordance with safety regulations.
In this article we will explain what precautions are necessary to carry out an efficient wood transportation, present the main rules that govern this activity and offer advice on how to lash the load correctly.
IBAMA regulations for the wood transportation
According to the IBAMA classification, the so-called forest products are composed of various wood derivatives, such as logs, posts, stakes, firewood and charcoal. Therefore, the dimensions, weight and type of packaging vary and change the way in which products are transported to their destination. The most common way in the lumber segment is cutting into posts or long logs.
To ensure that the wood is transported by suitable vehicles, the National Transit Council (CONTRAN) determines the use of the Vehicle Load Combination (CVC). This acronym refers to a combination of a cabin with implements, which can be trailers or semi-trailers.
The load capacity must also be taken into account. After all, overweight is one of the main accidents causes on ramps and sharp curves, which are very common on Brazilian roads. According to the regulations, each truck must support a maximum total gross weight of 57 tons, with a length not exceeding 19.80 meters.
In the case of opting for subcontracted transport companies, the contracts must be drawn up to allow management, inspection and evaluation by the contractor. This rigor ensures that both organizations benefit and the process is completed successfully.
Recommended Procedures for Wood Transportation
One of the main challenges of this transportation mode is to ensure the load stabilization, especially when the wood is cut into posts. In this case, a good mooring provides more security both for the transporter and for the processing industry to which the wood is destined. In addition, proper load lashing can avoid many problems during the journey, such as goods loss, accidents and delays.
To secure the posts, the standards require the use of high-strength steel cables or polyester straps. A recent change in legislation has prohibited the use of ropes due to their fragility when rubbing against metal parts or the vehicle’s load.
Drivers caught with vehicles that do not comply with the norm are subject to a fine and a penalty in their license for being an infraction considered serious.
Stacking in vehicles
The way that these products are accommodated in the truck has rules that must be followed to ensure that the drivers themselves are safe, as well as the passers-by on public roads. In addition, the load accommodation is a strategic factor, since its optimization increases the volume transported, without exceeding the legal limits.
The forest truck is widely used for wood logs transportation. This vehicle consists of a flat surface that has metal struts attached to the sides and panels to the rear and front.
It is recommended that the wood stacking be done in a pyramid shape, that is, forming a base with more logs at the bottom than at the top. In addition, the pile height must not exceed the truck’s front panels or the sides struts. With proper stacking, cargo stability can be maintained throughout the journey. In this way, the possibility of load sliding is limited, thus avoiding possible accidents.
Loading and unloading
The unloading operation depends on the use of good loading equipment and the hiring of qualified people for this activity. This aspect is essential to obtain greater efficiency and protection for the driver and for the professionals on the floor.
Therefore, the machinery used must be able to ensure the agility of this task to increase the performance of the area. Depending on the forest product type, the wood can be unloaded manually or using machines fitted with claws to remove the wood logs from the vehicle.
Rules governing wood transportation
Wood transportation in Brazil is regulated by Contran Resolution No. 196/2006. This resolution underwent some changes with Resolution Contran No. 246/2007. These two resolutions define efficient practices for wood transportation. They consider everything from fundamental safety requirements to detailing the vehicles’ characteristics and equipment that can carry this load type.
According to the legislation, the maximum logs length is 2.5 meters of raw wood. The logs should be arranged in the longitudinal direction of the truck, vertically or in triangles and pyramids.
In addition, vehicles suitable for wood transportation must undergo a safety inspection to obtain the CRV (Certificate of Vehicle Registration) and CRVL (Certificate of Vehicle Registration and License).
To transporting wood vertically, the vehicle body must have the following elements:
- Front and rear panels (in extendable vehicles only, rear panels are not required);
- at least two metal side struts for each log or set of logs;
- Steel cable or polyester strap capable of withstanding a minimum traction of 3,000 kilograms force (kgf) and tensioned by a self-adjusting pneumatic system or by hand winches installed in the body.
To transporting wood arranged in triangles or pyramids, the body must have:
- front panel the same width as the body;
- at least two struts with a height of at least 50 centimeters and reinforced lifesavings;
- steel cable or polyester strap capable of supporting a minimum traction of 3,000 kilos and tensioned by a self-adjusting pneumatic system or by hand winches installed in the body;
- The environmental license required for wood transportation.
In turn, the NR-11 and NR-12 standards define the necessary conditions for the transportation, movement, storage and safe handling of materials. They regulate the requirement for high-quality materials and safety equipment so that workers can perform their tasks safely.
These standards are intended to ensure that machinery and equipment are safe for worker’s use. They require complete information on the entire lifecycle of machines and equipment, including transportation, installation, use, maintenance and disposal at the end of their useful life.
Importance of using straps and proper lashing
Another Contran rule, Resolution 552, prohibits the use of ropes in lashing and recommends the use of equipment such as lashing straps, steel cable or chain. After all, ropes are less strong and can wear out over time and break during transportation. Therefore, they can only be used to tie the tarp.
Also, according to the standard, the strength of the straps, steel cables and chain must be at least twice the weight of the transported load. The resolution also prohibits that the load lashing is made directly on the body wood parts, which often does not offer the necessary resistance to support the load weight.
Additionally, other items such as nets, meshes, rails, plugs, spacers, shields, and friction mats can be used to enhance safety. However, these accessories can only be placed externally when the transported items occupy the entire internal body space.
Among the protection measures established is the implementation of fixed physical protections in risky areas, such as the belt and pulley protection for the transmission systems and the requirement of an emergency stop circuit.
In addition, belts and straps must be protected from dangerous movement, especially at crush, snatch and snag points.
Discover the Robustec lashing straps
The Robustec’s lashing straps ensure practicality and safety for your load, preventing tipping during transportation. They offer a variety of mounting and capacity options, depending on the application and specific load-securing needs of each customer.
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