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Load Distribution and Tie-Down. How to Organize Your Cargo in a Truck

organizar sua carga no caminhão

Good truck load distribution reduces the likelihood of traffic accidents and improves their performance. In addition to putting safety at risk, wrong load distribution can cause excess weight per axle, suspension, tire wear and calibration problems, reduced braking capacity and vehicle stability, and also cause damage to roads and bridges.

Before picking up the road, the truck driver must follow the loading of the products and make sure that they are distributed correctly, so as evenly divide the weight between the axles and along the body.

Load tie down and proper distribution of the cargo on the truck will depend greatly on the type of product that is being transported. Therefore, it is fundamental that you know the characteristics of the merchandise and pay attention to the safety recommendations for load handling.

Know the legislation on load transportation

In addition to being an indispensable safety measure, the distribution of load in the truck is also mandatory by law. Article 100 of the Brazilian Traffic Code (CTB) establishes that no vehicle may travel at a Total Gross Weight higher than that fixed by the manufacturer, nor exceed the maximum traction capacity of the tractor unit.

If an excess weight is found on the inspection scale, the truck driver may receive a fine and, depending on the excess quantity, the truck will be retained until the load is re-managed.

Proper distribution of the load on the dump truck avoids fines and surcharges for conditions outside of weight limits. This care is indispensable for the safety of the driver and others on the road, as well as contributing to the preservation of the transported product.

Learn how to split the load well into the truck.

Each truck model features a different number of axles and tie down points. The driver must check the appropriate value in terms of number, position and resistance for the material he is carrying. Note that the dump truck works like a balance, which should balance the weights evenly, so that neither side stands out.

Also, note that there is a vehicle indicated for each type of load. Make sure that the load to be carried is in accordance with your dump truck’s bucket – whether it is the bulker,  the construction materials, the half round, the landscaping, or the three sides dump truck – and avoid unnecessary risks.

To distribute your load well, the heavier part should always be aligned in the middle of the vehicle. In this way, a point of gravity and stability is created, preventing the overload of ab axis.

It is recommended to start loading the vehicle by the rear axle, so that the useful space can be evaluated more easily. This facilitates the visualization of the load, so that it can be balanced on both axles of the truck, avoiding being overweight over the cabin, which requires much more effort of the front axle and components.

When the heavier part is out of the center of gravity, the truck has a very light back part and no stability. Starting from the back axle, it is possible to distribute the weight equally on the lateral axes and to maintain it equivalent on the two sides.

Here’s how to load fragile products of different sizes

For the transportation of fragile items, you should prevent products from contacting other parts when distributing the load. It is recommended to use rubber and felt blankets to protect the merchandise while traveling, preventing from friction or abrasion.

This procedure should also be used to transport products of different sizes. In this way, empty spaces between them are avoided and the merchandise does not stirs much during the route. For more balance, any empty space should be filled with blankets and materials like airbags, papers, Styrofoam, among others.

The same applies to products with different weights, such as wrappings, packages, bales and bundles. In case of loading and unloading, do not let the filled packages be removed from only one side of the truck, in order to keep the weight balanced throughout the journey.

For products packed in boxes, check for instructions such as maximum stacking capacity, supported slope, cooling requirement, and other relevant information.

In the transport of liquid load in tanks, the driver must pay attention to the volume occupied. Empty spaces inside the tank can cause the liquid to move and bring instability to the vehicle. The ideal is to leave no space left in the tank, to avoid the movement of products and consequent displacement of the center of gravity of the vehicle.

Be careful with bulky and indivisible loads

Loads that cannot be divided – such as machinery and equipment, transformers, reactors, cranes and construction machines – should have their weight evenly distributed in the space between the axles of the truck.

In some cases, the structural parts of compact materials (wood and plastics, for example) may have their load separated into two or more parts to better distribute the weight. It is also advisable to transport with the load lying down.

For very large products, such as posts, plates, panels and rebar, ideally they should be transported always lying down, centralizing them in the inter-axes area. Also, be sure to balance the weight on the sides by placing an equal amount on both edges.

Caminhão de carga Robustec

Try to know the route, checking if it has many curves, if the roads are in good condition, among other factors that can affect the conditions of the transport. In unfavorable conditions, the care with the load movement must be doubled.

As we have seen, the correct distribution of the load brings greater safety for the transport, preventing the wear of the truck components and avoiding problems with the inspection. The truck driver must always be aware of the loading and unloading of the cargo on the truck and check if the weight division is balanced between the axles and sides of the body.

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